World History and Geography to 1500 A.D. (C.E.)

The Virginia Geographic Alliance has developed twenty-four lessons and accompanying materials to foster the development of geographic understandings, knowledge, and skills based on the Virginia Standards of Learning for World History and Geography to 1500 A.D. (C.E.). The format of the lessons mirrors Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education, History and Social Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence, World History and Geography to 1500 A.D. (C.E.) © 2012. The graphics-rich lessons use an inquiry approach and challenge students to think critically as they explore and apply geographic concepts to the study of world history through both time and space.

[A presentation made for the World History/World Geography: Train the Trainers on June 21, 2016, may be viewed at]

NOTE: The 2008 SOLS referenced here. Updates are in preparation.

Summary of Lessons

1. The Paleolithic Era to the Agricultural Revolution, SOL WHI.2a

Session 1: Explaining How Physical Geography Influenced the Lives of Early Humans

 2. Ancient River Valley Civilizations, SOL WHI.3a

Session 1: Evaluating the Location of Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Session 2: Why Does Sedimentation Matter?

3. Ancient Greece, SOL WHI.5a

Session 1. Locating Ancient Greece

Session 2. Analyzing the Geography of Ancient Greece

Session 3. Simulating Trade in Ancient Greece

Session 4. Visualizing the Geographic Extent of Alexander’s Empire

4. Ancient Rome from 700 B.C. to 500 A.D. (C.E.), SOL WHI.6a

Session 1. Analyzing the Influence of Geography on the Spread of the Roman Empire

Session 2. Investigating Time and Distance in the Roman Empire

5. Byzantine Empire, SOL WHI.7a

Session 1. Evaluating the Location of the Byzantine Empire

Session 2. Investigating the Formation and Growth of the Byzantine Empire

6. Islamic Empires, SOL WHI.8b

Session 1. Exploring the Physical Environment of the Islamic World

Session 2. Comparing the Extent of the Islamic Empires

7. Europe in the Middle Ages, SOL WHI.9d

Session 1. Predicting the Consequences of the Division of Charlemagne’s Empire.

Session 2. Analyzing the Extent and Influence of Invasions

8. Eastern Hemisphere, SOL WHI.10

Session 1. Investigating the Geography of the Eastern Hemisphere

Session 2. Exploring the Patterns of Trade Along the Silk Roads

Session 3. Analyzing African Empires

9. Maya, Aztec and Incan Civilizations, SOL WHI.11a

Session 1. Examining the Physical Environment of Mesoamerican Civilizations

Session 2. Examining the Physical Environment of the Incan Civilization

Session 3. Exploring Cultural Landscapes

10. Examining Changing Borders within Europe, SOL WHI.12

Session 1. Examining Changing Borders within Europe

Session 2. Investigating the Geography of the Crusades

Session 3. Examining the Diffusion of the Black Death

11. Renaissance and Trade, SOL WHI.13a

Session 1. Exploring the Cities of Renaissance Europe

These curriculum materials were developed by Dr. Joseph D. Enedy, Professor Emeritus of Geography, James Madison University; Dr. Donald J. Zeigler, Professor of Geography, Old Dominion University, Virginia Beach Center; Dr. Georgeanne Hribar, retired Secondary Social Studies Coordinator,Virginia Beach City Public Schools; Rebecca Mills, retired K-12 Social Studies Coordinator, Spotsylvania County Schools; Shannon Castelo, Social Studies Department Chair, James River High School, Chesterfield County Schools; and Barbara Crain, Assistant Professor of Geography, Northern Virginia Community College.

To schedule a staff development program at your school,  please contact Dr. Joseph Enedy:

For questions on content or use of maps, please contact Dr. Georgeanne Hribar: 

A product of the Virginia Geographic Alliance.      VGA logo


Comments are closed.